BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Neonatal subpial hemorrhage with underlying cerebral infarct is a previously described but poorly understood clinicoradiographic syndrome. We sought to further characterize the cranial ultrasound and MR imaging characteristics and associated outcomes of this condition across the full range of gestational ages, including extreme and very preterm neonates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This was a single tertiary pediatric center retrospective case series. Brain MR imaging and cranial ultrasound of neonates with subpial hemorrhage with underlying cerebral infarct were identified from a population-based radiology registry (2006–2020). Original images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to history and outcome. Clinical presentation, course, and outcome at >12 months were abstracted from medical records. The diagnostic utility of cranial ultrasound was compared with that of MR imaging.
Sixteen patients were included (median gestational age, 36.5 weeks; range, 27–41 weeks; 31% premature). MR images were obtained acutely at the time of presentation between days 0 and 9 of life. On T2WI and DWI, a consistent presence of a hypointense subpial bleed and an underlying hyperintense cerebral cortex were recognized, which created a distinct MR imaging pattern resembling the yin-yang symbol. Findings of all the MRAs and MRVs were normal. Cranial ultrasound detected 6 of 7 MR imaging lesions with sonographic features correlating well with MR imaging. The 3 extreme or very preterm neonates did not survive. The remainder survived with relatively mild neurologic deficits.
Subpial hemorrhage with underlying infarction is a recognizable condition with unique MR imaging and sonographic features. Improved recognition may advance understanding of risk factors and outcomes.
Read this article: https://bit.ly/3r3O81i