BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Imaging of the cerebral venous sinuses has evolved Substantially during the past 2 decades, and most recently intravascular sinus imaging with sonography has shed light on the pathophysiology of sinus thrombosis and intracranial hypertension. Optical coherence tomography is the highest resolution intravascular imaging technique available but has not been previously used in cerebral sinus imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a preclinical animal model of endovascular optical coherence tomography cerebral venous sinus imaging and compare optical coherence tomography findings with histology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Four consecutive Yorkshire swine were selected. The superior sagittal sinus was first catheterized with a microwire, and the optical coherence tomography catheter was delivered via a monorail technique into the sinus. Luminal blood was cleared with a single arterial injection. After structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging, a craniotomy was performed and the sinus and adjacent dura/veins were resected. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare optical coherence tomography and histology.
Technically successful optical coherence tomography images were obtained in 3 of 4 swine. The luminal environment and visualization of dural arteries and draining cortical veins were characterized. The average maximum diameters of the sinus, dural arteries, and cortical veins were 3.14 mm, 135 µm, and 260 µm, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated good agreement between histology and optical coherence tomography images.
Endovascular optical coherence tomography imaging was feasible in this preclinical animal study. Adoption of this imaging technique in the human cerebral venous sinus could aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of the pathophysiology of various diseases of the sinus. Human safety and feasibility studies are needed.
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