Abstract

A, Axial postcontrast MRV demonstrating extrinsic stenosis from the overlying cerebellum (short white arrow). B, Contrast-enhanced 3D-MRV image shows poststenotic sigmoid sinus enlargement (curved white arrow). C, Accompanying lateral venography confirms stenosis (white arrow) and sinus enlargement (curved white arrow) seen on the corresponding MRV. D, Separate axial postcontrast MRV shows intrinsic stenosis from arachnoid granulations (black arrow). E, A coronal postcontrast MRV sequence shows lateral sinus dehiscence with a venous aneurysm (curved black arrow). F, Accompanying frontal venography confirms stenosis (short black arrow) and a saccular aneurysm (curved black arrow) seen on the corresponding MRV.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Dural venous sinus stenosis has been associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and isolated venous pulsatile tinnitus. However, the utility of characterizing stenosis as intrinsic or extrinsic remains indeterminate. The aim of this retrospective study was to review preprocedural imaging of patients with symptomatic idiopathic intracranial hypertension and pulsatile tinnitus, classify the stenosis, and assess a trend between stenosis type and clinical presentation while reviewing the frequencies of other frequently seen imaging findings in these conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

MRVs of 115 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and 43 patients with pulsatile tinnitus before venous sinus stent placement were reviewed. Parameters recorded included the following: intrinsic or extrinsic stenosis, prominent emissary veins, optic nerve tortuosity, cephalocele, sella appearance, poststenotic fusiform enlargement versus saccular venous aneurysm, and internal jugular bulb diverticula. χ2 cross-tabulation statistics were calculated and recorded for all data.

RESULTS

Most patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (75 of 115 sinuses, 65%) had extrinsic stenosis, and most patients with pulsatile tinnitus (37 of 45 sinuses, 82%) had intrinsic stenosis. Marked optic nerve tortuosity was more common in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Cephaloceles were rare in both cohorts, with an increased trend toward the presence in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Empty sellas were more common in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Cerebellar tonsils were similarly located at the foramen magnum level in both cohorts. Saccular venous aneurysms were more common in pulsatile tinnitus. Internal jugular bulb diverticula were similarly common in both cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort, most patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension had extrinsic stenosis, and most patients with pulsatile tinnitus had intrinsic stenosis. Awareness and reporting of these subtypes may reduce the underrecognition of potential contributory stenoses in a given patient’s idiopathic intracranial hypertension or pulsatile tinnitus.

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jross

Jeffrey Ross

• Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.



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