Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Lesion type 1 NODDI color map8 graphically representing NDI (green) or VEC (red) compartment prevalence in voxels within a focal WM lesion (white arrows) at baseline (A–C) and at follow-up (after 12 months) (D–F). The green within the lesion is represented more at follow-up, after the disappearance of the enhancement, with a relative decrease of the red voxels. FLAIR sequences (C and F) show an important reduction in size with time. VEC and NDI are fractions in each voxel: If NDI increases, VEC decreases and vice versa. FISO indicates isotropic volume fraction.

MR imaging is essential for MS diagnosis and management, yet it has limitations in assessing axonal damage and remyelination. Gadolinium-based contrast agents add value by pinpointing acute inflammation and blood-brain barrier leakage, but with drawbacks in safety and cost. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) assesses microstructural features of neurites contributing to diffusion imaging signals. This approach may resolve the components of MS pathology, overcoming conventional MR imaging limitations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Twenty-one subjects with MS underwent serial enhanced MRIs (12.6 ± 9 months apart) including NODDI, whose key metrics are the neurite density and orientation dispersion index. Twenty-one age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent unenhanced MR imaging with the same protocol. Fifty-eight gadolinium-enhancing and non-gadolinium-enhancing lesions were semiautomatically segmented at baseline and follow-up. Normal-appearing WM masks were generated by subtracting lesions and dirty-appearing WM from the whole WM.

RESULTS

The orientation dispersion index was higher in gadolinium-enhancing compared with non-gadolinium-enhancing lesions; logistic regression indicated discrimination, with an area under the curve of 0.73. At follow-up, in the 58 previously enhancing lesions, we identified 2 subgroups based on the neurite density index change across time: Type 1 lesions showed increased neurite density values, whereas type 2 lesions showed decreased values. Type 1 lesions showed greater reduction in size with time compared with type 2 lesions.

CONCLUSIONS

NODDI is a promising tool with the potential to detect acute MS inflammation. The observed heterogeneity among lesions may correspond to gradients in severity and clinical recovery after the acute phase.

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jross

Jeffrey Ross

• Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.



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