Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Solid (A and B) and necrotic (D and E) tumors and respective NAWM segmentations on axial CE-T1WI (A and D) and coregistered on DSC-PWI (B and E). Resultant raw curves by averaging the TIC for each voxel within the segmented areas (C and F), noncomparable due to differences in time, intensity, baseline, or initial point of the descending curve. Exemplification of the parameters used to normalize the curves, MSID, and TTP-TTA, relative to NAWM (G). Resultant normalized tumor curves, superimposable and comparable point by point (H). Curves with the exact same number of time-matching points and sharing common units of time (relative to TTP-TTA of the NAWM) and intensity (relative to MSID of the NAWM).

DSC-PWI has demonstrated promising results in the presurgical diagnosis of brain tumors. While most studies analyze specific parameters derived from time-intensity curves, very few have directly analyzed the whole curves. The aims of this study were the following: 1) to design a new method of postprocessing time-intensity curves, which renders normalized curves, and 2) to test its feasibility and performance on the diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Diagnostic MR imaging of patients with histologically confirmed primary central nervous system lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. Correlative cases of glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, metastasis, and meningioma, matched by date and number, were retrieved for comparison. Time-intensity curves of enhancing tumor and normal-appearing white matter were obtained for each case. Enhancing tumor curves were normalized relative to normal-appearing white matter. We performed pair-wise comparisons for primary central nervous system lymphoma against the other tumor type. The best discriminatory time points of the curves were obtained through a stepwise selection. Logistic binary regression was applied to obtain prediction models. The generated algorithms were applied in a test subset.

RESULTS

A total of 233 patients were included in the study: 47 primary central nervous system lymphomas, 48 glioblastomas, 39 anaplastic astrocytomas, 49 metastases, and 50 meningiomas. The classifiers satisfactorily performed all bilateral comparisons in the test subset (primary central nervous system lymphoma versus glioblastoma, area under the curve = 0.96 and accuracy = 93%; versus anaplastic astrocytoma, 0.83 and 71%; versus metastases, 0.95 and 93%; versus meningioma, 0.93 and 96%).

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed method for DSC-PWI time-intensity curve normalization renders comparable curves beyond technical and patient variability. Normalized time-intensity curves performed satisfactorily for the presurgical identification of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

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jross

Jeffrey Ross

• Mayo Clinic, Phoenix

Dr. Jeffrey S. Ross is a Professor of Radiology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and practices neuroradiology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. His publications include over 100 peer-reviewed articles, nearly 60 non-refereed articles, 33 book chapters, and 10 books. He was an AJNR Senior Editor from 2006-2015, is a member of the editorial board for 3 other journals, and a manuscript reviewer for 10 journals. He became Editor-in-Chief of the AJNR in July 2015. He received the Gold Medal Award from the ASSR in 2013.



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